Jackson et al. 2002

Jackson, A., N. W. John, N. A. Thacker, R. T. Ramsden, J. E. Gillespie, E. Gobbetti, G. Zanetti, R. Stone, A. D. Linney, G. H. Alusi, S. S. Franceschini, A. Schwerdtner, and A. Emmen, 2002. "Developing a Virtual Reality Environment in Petrous Bone Surgery: A State-of-the-Art Review," Otology & Neurotology 23: 111–121.


  • VR as surgical simulator in medical sciences; present need for 'personalized' virtual environment based on patient's data, and present attempt to do so: Integrated Environment for Rehearsal and Planning of Surgical Interventions (IERAPSI). Present overview of VR systems that tie into IERAPSI; also showcase problems with current systems, e.g. head-mounted displays and instrumented clothing, such as gloves and whole-body suits present health risks in the OR. CAVEs still too expensive for general deployment at the time of writing (2002);

  • VR system to simulate petrous bone surgical procedures; describes steps in making such an environment: various image sources (CT and MRI scans etc.) can be used to calculate 3D models on the fly; combine these models into one environment; classify various types of tissue ('segmentation') and physical modeling (collision detection [e.g. between tissue and tool], bone dissection, and interaction with soft tissue), with haptic feedback to surgeon. Also provides a brief overview of other VR applications in different fields of medicine that may have proven useful in further development of IERAPSI;

  • Does not provide data on software/hardware specifics;