McCloy & Stone 2001

McCloy, R., and R. Stone, 2001. "Science, medicine, and the future. Virtual reality in surgery," British Medical Journal 323: 912-915.


  • Describes a variety of cases that employs VR and robotics in surgical training and execution; much cheaper to train in VR, but only adopted if proven reliable and 'valid'; slowly became the standard in 2001. Many highly specialized VR training apparatuses were developed (though not described in this article) and they fall back on the MIST system (Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer), a hardware and software combination designed and developed specifically for surgical training. In the development of this system, they made great advances in haptics and precision of control over tools.

  • Does not provide any technical specs on hardware/software;