Seymour et al. 2002

Seymour, N. E., A. G. Gallagher, S. A. Roman, M. K. O'Brien, V. K. Bansal, D. K. Andersen, and R. M. Satava, 2002. "Virtual reality training improves operating room performance: results of a randomized, double-blinded study," Ann Surg 236 (4): 458-463; discussion 463-454 (doi: 10.1097/01.SLA.0000028969.51489.B4).


  • Provide results of user study in gall bladder operation: eight VR-trained specialists versus eight non-VR-trained specialists. Conclude that VR-trained specialists were quicker and less likely to make errors, while non-VR-specialists were much more likely to make errors, and argue that VR should play bigger role in training of surgeons;

  • Provide hardware specs on which the study was performed: MIST VR system (Frameset v. 1.2) desktop PC (400-MHz Pentium II, 64-Mb RAM), a 17-inch CRT monitor; GPU was Matrox Mystique with 8-MB SDRAM), a frame rate of approximately 15 fps;